Key thinkers who pushed – and are pushing -- the frontier on human liberty

A liberal timeline by LockeSmith Institute | An excellent essay by Amy H. Sturgis

Extract from Russell on liberalism (Word, 39 KB) Russell himself was not a liberal.

Classical liberalism (Word, 30KB Extracts from the Encyclopaedia Britannica)

The Concept of Liberalism and its Relevance for India by S.P. Aiyar (Word document from ‘Freedom and Dissent’ published by Democratic Research Service– permission obtained)

Homo sapiens that happened to be born in the West

Homo sapiens that happened to be born in India

Socrates (Apology by Plato, a Word document, 130 KB)

Magna Charta, 1225 (Word, 62KB)

John Locke,  1690 (Treatise on Govt. Word, 380KB)

Voltaire  1778 (Letter on Locke, Word, 41KB)

Adam Smith 1776 (Wealth of Nations, Word 2.6 MB)

David Hume (390KB, Word doc)

Edmund Burke 1790 (Reflections on the Revolution in   France, Text file, 570KB)

James Madison, 1789. Amendments to US Constitution, Word 66KB)

T Jefferson

John Stuart Mill, 1859 (On Liberty, Word 311 KB)

Ayn Rand

FA Hayek (Use of knowledge in Society,1945, PDF 1.36MB)

Milton Friedman (link to his Indian writings, 1955)

Peter Bauer

Buchanan (Soul of liberalism, 2000. PDF 48KB)

Indian (some of their writings are at IPI Publications page)

BR Shenoy

Jadgish Bhagwati

Deepak Lal

Gurcharan Das

Parth Shah, founder, Centre for Civil Society

Barun Mitra, founder, Liberty Institute

Madhu Kishwar, founder, Manushi

S.V. Raju, President, Indian Liberal Group

Nirvikar Singh

Sanjeev Sabhlok, co-founder, Indiapolicy Institute

Ajay Gandhi, co-founder, Indiapolicy Institute


Historical and Swatantra Party

Raja Ram Mohun Roy



Minoo Masani